Laboratory 3, Part IV: Complete the following partially in Lab and as Homework 2 (100 points) (due Monday 29 April)

Answer on separate sheets with answers that are made up of complete, coherent sentences. Do NOT jam answers onto a photocopy of this page.

1. Kinematics (55 points)

Examine this infrared satellite loop. A frame from this loop is given as Figure 1 (click on image to get higher resolution version of it). Answer the following questions:
(a) The imagery you will be using for this exercise was obtained from the US Navy. This particular infrared imagery uses a standard enhancement curve to portray temperatures. What is the name of the enhancement curve used here and state the reason why? (10 points)
(b) Note the locations A, B and C on Fig. 1. Refer back to the satellite loop. Now, using the handout on kinematics, state whether the clouds at each location are dominantly showing evolution consistent with translation (advection), divergence or vorticity (rotation). Please state the evidence why for each case in near, coherent sentences. (30 points)

Figure 1: GOES 10 Image, 9 March 2006 1830 UTC

2. Examine the following satellite loop showing a splitting supercell in South Dakota (the south or right-moving member of which was associated with tornadoes).

South Dakota Tornadic Supercell

Now examine Fig. 2, which provides one frame from this loop. Note locations A and B on Fig. 2. Refer back to the satellite loop. Now, using the handout on kinematics, state whether the clouds at each location are dominantly showing evolution consistent with translation (advection), divergence or vorticity (rotation). Please state the evidence why for each case in near, coherent sentences. (25 points)

Figure 1: GOES 11 Image, 24 July 2000, 0100 UTC

2. Katrina (15 points)

Examine Fig. 3a, 3b and 3c, GOES satellite imagery of Katrina at its most intense stage.

Figure 3a, b and c: GOES Imagery of Katrina at 1235 UTC 28 August 2005

State the type of image and the enhancement curve used (if applicable) for each image, and provide the reasons why. (15 points)

3. Gulf of Mexico Loop Current (30 points)

Examine this webpage on the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current.

Now examine the three images below, corresponding to the SST pattern, Current Velocities and Sea-surface altimetry for July 25, 2005, in the Gulf of Mexico, about a month before Katrina moved into the region and intensified so dramatically.

SST Currents Altimetry

(a) Discuss the evidence that you see that the Loop Current was present. (10 points)

(b) Discuss the evidence that you see that the SST pattern on the left hand diagram is consistent with the current information provided in the middle panel. (10 points)

(c) Discuss the evidence that you see on the right two panels that the current information was consistent with what you would expect from the sea surface altimetry and the principle of geostrophic flow in the ocean (10 points)