DEPARTMENT OF GEOSCIENCES                                                                Spring 20 11

San Francisco State University                                      NAME________________________


Metr 201 Monteverdi Quiz #3

100 pts.

(Test will be collected at 10140 AM)


1.    Definitions.  Provide a one sentence definition (if the term is an abbreviation, first “unabbreviate” it and then define it).  (5 pts each for a total of 30 pts).


(a) CAPE

Convective Available Potential Energy – a measure of the total potential buoyancy acceleration experienced by an air parcel rising from the LFC to the EL.  


Directly related to the “positive” area on a Skew T/Log P diagram bounded by the parcel’s ascent curve on the right and the sounding (ELR)on the left, from the LFC (CCL) to the EL.




(b) Equilibrium Level


The location at the top of the positive area on a sounding at which the air parcel becomes the same temperature as its surroundings and above which it becomes colder than it surroundings. 


Alternatively, it is the elevation that separates the region of the atmosphere in which the buoyancy acceleration is positive (beneath the level) from that in which the buoyancy acceleration is negative (above the level).




(e) Lifted Index



The difference (in C or K) between the temperature of a lifted

parcel and the surrounding atmosphere at the 500 mb level

(negative for unstable conditions).




(d) LFC

Level of Free Convection: The elevation (in millibars or feet/km) to which an air parcel must be lofted above which its temperature will be warmer than that of the air surrounding it at the same elevation. Above this elevation the parcel no longer needs to be forced upwards, as it will freely convect (be spontaneously buoyant).

(e) TVS


Tornado Vortex Signature -- The appearance of a tornado on the Doppler radar screen that shows up as a small region of rapidly changing wind speeds inside a rotating updraft.







2.  Units.  Provide the units (metric) used conventionally for the following (3 pts each for a total of 12 pts)


         horizontal winds    meters per sec or m s-1 (or km h-1)    




         lifted index                     oK or oC


         CAPE                                    Joules kg-1 or m2s-2


         CIN                                       Joules kg-1 or m2s-2



  Chart and Map Questions  (82 pts) (Use back of sheets if necessary.  Answer in complete sentences.)


3.       The sounding for Fort Worth, TX (KFWD) for 0000 UTC 4 May 1999 is shown in Fig 1.  (30 pts total)

(a)           Determine the elevation (mb)  of the LCL, LFC, and EL and the value of LI for the sounding. (Show the ascent curve, and make sure to plot the positions of the levels on the ascent curve) (28 pts)


(b)           Shade in the portion of the modified sounding that has positive buoyancy (CAPE) in red. (2 pts)




4.       The sealevel pressure map for 2200 3 May 1999 is given as Fig. 2. The area experiencing dew point temperatures exceeding 60oF is shaded green. The CAPE/CIN field for 2200 UTC 3 May 1999 is given in Fig. 3.  Compare the pattern shown with the dew point field depicted in Fig. 2. (28 pts total)



  Describe why the fact that thunderstorms were erupting over a broad area of southern Kansas, Oklahoma and north Texas would be expected given the information depicted in both Figs. 1 and 3.  (Careful, it’s not just that CAPE is present) (14 pts)


Both figures either suggest or depict large values of CAPE, both in the Fort Worth sounding, and geographically over the southern Great Plains.  But this would be not enough to expect a widespread outbreak of thunderstorms if large amounts of CIN were present in all the soundings in the area.


But, as can be seen from the Fort Worth sounding and the geographic distribution shown in Fig. 3, it is clear that the CAPE is occurring in an environment in which there is virtually no CIN.  Hence, the soundings in the area are “uncapped” (nearly absolutely unstable) and thunderstorms would be expected to occur over the area.





















Figure 1:  KFWD Sounding, 0000 UTC 4 May 1999


Figure 2: Sealevel pressure map, 2200 UTC 3 May 1999.  Boundaries are indicated as Lines 1, 2 and 3, and area of surface dew point exceeding 60oF is shaded in green.



Figure 3:  Distribution of CAPE (red) and CIN (blue), 2200 UTC 3 May 1999.